Premenstrual syndrome is a cyclic symptom complex that occurs in some women in the premenstrual days (2-10 days before menstruation) and is characterized by psycho-emotional, vascular and metabolic and endocrine disorders.
The reasons are not well understood. There are several theories of its occurrence: hormonal (all the symptoms – the body’s response to the drop in female sex hormones, depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle); neurogenic (impaired metabolism of special substances in the central nervous system); hyperprolactinemic (increased pituitary hormone – prolactin, which is responsible for the state of the mammary glands, mood, pressure level, fluid retention, etc., its level may also increase under stress), the theory of water intoxication (pathological fluid retention in the body during the second phase of the menstrual cycle ) and etc.
Clinical manifestations of premenstrual syndrome are divided into two groups:
Emotional-behavioral: tension and anxiety; mood swings, irritability, anger or crying; depressed mood, changes in appetite (from complete absence to a pronounced feeling of hunger), sleep disturbance (insomnia) and concentration, increased sensitivity to sounds and smells.
Somatic: headache, feeling of fullness in the eyeballs, pain in the heart, general weakness, weight gain due to fluid retention, abdominal distention, nausea, engorgement of the mammary glands, pain in the joints and muscles, numbness of the hands, liquid stools or constipation.
Symptoms of PMS can manifest themselves in various combinations and are characterized by different intensity, and therefore distinguish mild (3-4 symptoms) and severe (5-12 manifestations) form of PMS. Sometimes the emotional and behavioral disorders of PMS deprive a woman of her ability to work; in such cases, talk about premenstrual dysphoria.