According to various authors, the frequency of ovarian tumors over the past 10 years has increased from 6-11% to 19-25% of all genital tumors. Most ovarian tumors are benign, accounting for 75–87% of all true ovarian tumors. A significant part of the cystic formations of the ovaries are tumor-like retention formations (70.9%).
The anatomical and histological structure of the ovaries causes a morphological variety of tumors. The size and weight of the ovaries depend on the volume and number of follicles contained and normally range from 3.0 × 1.5 × 0.6 to 5.0 × 3.0 × 1.5 cm and correspondingly 5-8 g.
In modern oncological gynecology, the international classification of ovarian tumors is used, based on the microscopic characterization of tumors, taking into account the clinical course of the disease. Tumors of each nosological group are divided into benign, borderline and malignant.
1. Epithelial tumors (cystadenomas)
- Serous Tumors
- B. Mucinous tumors
- Endometrioid tumors
- G. Clear cell tumors
- D. Brenner’s Tumors
- E. Mixed epithelial tumors
- J. Undifferentiated carcinomas
- Unclassified epithelial tumors
- 2. Tumors of the stroma of the Genitalia.
- Granulosostroma cell tumors
- B. Tumors from Sertoli and Leydig cells.
- B. Ginandroblastoma
- G. Unclassifiable tumors of the stroma of the genital strand (tech, fibroma)
- Germ cell tumors
- A. Dysgerminoma
- B. Epidermal sinus tumor
- G. Fetal carcinoma
- D. Teratomas:
- 1 Immature.
- Monodermal (highly specialized):
- E. Mixed germ cell tumors
- Tumors that are not specific to the ovaries.
- Unclassifiable tumors.
- 4. Secondary (metastatic) tumors
- 5. Tumor processes.
- Luteoma pregnancy.
- B. Ovarian stroma hyperplasia and hypertecosis.
- Massive swelling of the ovary.
- G. Single follicular cyst and cyst of the corpus luteum.
- D. Multiple follicular cysts (polycystic ovaries).
- E. Multiple follicular cysts and/or yellow body.
- G. Endometriosis.
- Superficial epithelial cysts of inclusion
- I. Simple cysts.
- K. Inflammatory processes.
- L. Paraovarial cysts.
Symptoms of the disease depend on the size and location of the tumor. The most common complaint of patients with ovarian tumors is pain. Pain occurs in the lower abdomen, in the lower back, sometimes in the groin areas. More often they are stupid, whining character. Acute pains appear only when the legs twist the tumor, hemorrhages in case of rupture of the tumor capsule. As a rule, pain is not associated with menstruation and occurs as a result of irritation or inflammation of serous integuments, spasm of smooth muscles of hollow organs, circulatory disorders. Benign ovarian tumors are often combined with other gynecological diseases, such as chronic inflammation of the uterus.
Menstrual function in patients with benign ovarian tumors is often characterized by various disorders.
The generative function in these patients is reduced, which may be due to disturbances in the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovaries system, obstruction of the fallopian tubes, or changes in their function due to the presence of a tumor in the pelvis.
- Gynecological examination
- Ultrasound procedure
- A blood test for tumor-associated markers specific for a specific tumor – (CA-125, CA-19.9, CA-72.4, inhibin, lactate dehydrogenase, alpha fetoprotein, hCG, testosterone, etc.).
- X-ray computed tomography
- Magnetic resonance imaging
- Color Doppler mapping (DDC) helps to more accurately differentiate between benign and malignant ovarian tumors.
- Urological examinations with the prevalence of the process
Treatment of tumors and tumor formation of the ovaries prompt. The volume and access of surgical intervention depend on the age of the patient, the size and malignancy of the formation, as well as on concomitant diseases.