Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common viral infection of the genital tract. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent – DNA containing an icosahedron (dvadtsatirannik) with a diameter of approximately 45-55 nm, consisting of 72 capsomers, has no outer shell with molecular weight about 8 thousand base pairs. It belongs to the genus Papillomavirus (Papillomavirus) and belongs to subgroup A of the family Papovaviridae. It is strictly epitheliotropic, that is, it affects only the epithelium of the skin and mucous membranes of the genitals and other organs (larynx, oral cavity, eyes, etc.). During the replication cycle, the HPV genome expresses from 8 to 10 protein products, but only one of them has an enzymatic function.
To date, more than 150 types of human papillomavirus (HPV) have been described. Of all the viruses identified, anogenital region infects 34 types.
According to their ability to initiate (cause) neoplastic changes (precancer) and cancer, human papilloma viruses are systematized into groups of low – HPV 6, 11, 40, 42, 43, 44, 53, 54, 61, 72, 73, 81 and high – HPV 16 , 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 50, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 64, 68 oncogenic risk. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, papillomavirus types 16 and 18 cause cancer of the cervix, vulvar cancer of the vulva and anus, papilloma viruses of types 2 and 27 are simple warts, papillomaviruses of types 6 and 11 are genital warts and papillomatosis (many small warts ) vulva and larynx.
The peak period for acquiring infection for both women and men begins immediately after they become sexually active. HPV is sexually transmitted. Many HPV types do not cause problems. HPV infections usually go away on their own, without any intervention, a few months after their acquisition, and about 90% go away within 2 years. A small proportion of infections with certain types of HPV can persist and develop into cancer.
Today, cervical cancer is the most common disease associated with HPV. Almost all cases of cervical cancer can be caused by HPV infections.
HPV types that do not cause cancer (especially types 6 and 11) can cause genital warts and respiratory papillomatosis (a disease in which tumors grow in the airways leading from the nose and mouth to the lungs).
Most HPV infections do not cause symptoms or illness and go away on their own. However, persistent infection with certain types of HPV (most often types 16 and 18) can lead to the development of precancerous pathological conditions. Without treatment, these conditions can develop into cervical cancer, but this process usually takes many years.
In women with a normal immune system, cervical cancer develops in 15–20 years. In women with a weakened immune system, for example, with HIV infection without treatment, it may take only 5-10 years to develop.