Colposcopy is a procedure for pelvic examination of the vagina, cervix and vulva. Carry out this procedure using a special device – colposcope. The main indications for colposcopy are deviations from the normal results of Pap.
In the vagina are introduced mirrors dilators. This allows you to see the cervix. The doctor uses a colposcope to examine the cervix. A colposcope is a tool with magnifying lenses, the main part of which remains outside the body. A colposcope allows you to carefully examine the surface of the cervix.
Colposcopy of the cervix is divided into several types:
- Simple – the woman is located on the gynecological chair, for a better view, a gynecological mirror is inserted inside and then the cervix is examined with the help of a colposcope.
- Enlarged – except for all the steps described above, the uterine mucosa is stained with 3% acetic acid solution and Lugol solution. This method allows you to most clearly identify the lesions. When stained, the mucous becomes brown, and the lesions become white (whitish, with a white patina)
- Color – the procedure is similar, but only apply solutions that stain the cervix in blue or green. This method is used for a more detailed study of the vascular network and lesions.
- Luminescent – it is used mainly to identify cancer cells. Fluorochromes are applied, the cervix is treated with them, and then they are examined using UV rays. As a result, the cancerous lesions are highlighted in pink.
Colposcopy is a painless procedure without side effects, which is safe to perform even during pregnancy. The study does not apply during menstruation. The doctor performs a biopsy of the suspicious area on the cervix when it is detected. When a biopsy is taken, a small sample of tissue is removed from the pathological area and sent to the pathological laboratory for examination under a microscope. Biopsy is the only accurate way to determine the nature of the change. Cervical biopsy in some women may cause some discomfort.