Infection During Pregnancy

Infections during the pregnancy  – one of the main factors that can adversely affect the course of pregnancy and the health of the newborn.

As known, when the human body meets an infectious agent it produces antibodies against the infection. For some rubella, chicken pox), for other infections, temporary.

It is the primary infection during pregnancy that is especially dangerous for the condition of the fetus and mother.

Even at the stage of planning a pregnancy, it is necessary to conduct an examination for sexually transmitted diseases, if they are found, it is necessary to receive a course of therapy, and then make a decision about conceiving a child.

If a woman did not suffer from rubella in childhood, did not receive vaccination against it, it is necessary to undergo vaccination, and only 3 months after that it is possible to plan a pregnancy.

Already at the first visit of a pregnant woman, it is necessary to conduct the following studies for infections: – HIV infection, syphilis screening (RPR), hepatitis, rubella antibodies; – smear from the cervical canal for gonorrhea, chlamydia, cytomegalovirus infection, toxoplasmosis;

– urine culture (in case of bacteriuria, even asymptomatic, it is necessary to conduct antibiotic therapy);

Infection of the fetus during pregnancy is transmitted to the fetus in two ways: hematogenous and ascending. It is possible infection of the fetus and direct by passing through the birth canal during childbirth.

The consequences for the fetus depend on the duration of the pregnancy. At the stage of embryogenesis, the laying of organs and systems, infection can lead to the death of the embryo and spontaneous miscarriage.

In the second trimester, infection of the fetus does not lead to a congenital malformation, but can very detrimental effect on his health.

Toxoplasmosis (pathogen Toxoplasma gondi)

It causes in the fetus:

  • symmetric form of fetal development delay syndrome
  • non-immune fetal dropsy
  • chorioretinitis
  • Intracranial Calcifications
  • hepatosplenomegaly
  • microcephaly
  • thrombocytopenia

Cytomegalovirus infection (the causative agent of CMV – DNA containing the virus) for viremia or primary infection in the fetus can cause:

  • symmetric form of fetal development delay syndrome
  • non-immune fetal dropsy
  • brain calcifications
  • periventricular Calcifications
  • meningocephalitis
  • hepatosplemenomenia
  • jaundice
  • deafness

Herpes simplex virus (Herpes simplex –DNA containing virus)

When viremia or primary infection can be transmitted transplacentally or when passing through the birth canal in the presence of herpes rash on the genitals

  • spontaneous miscarriage
  • microcephaly
  • symmetrical form of fetal development delay syndrome
  • brain calcifications
  • meningoencephalitis
  • pneumonia
  • mental retardation
  • hepatosplenomegaly
  • petechial rash

Streptococcus group b

Infection occurs when the fetus passes through the birth canal.

It causes in the baby during the first hours after birth:

  • bilateral pneumonia
  • newborn sepsis

At 35-37 weeks of pregnancy, it is necessary to conduct an examination for colonization of the genital tract by Streptococcus group B, upon detection of which, antibiotic therapy should be promptly received to prevent the risk of septic complications in the newborn.

Infection of the fetus or newborn with causative agents of chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) and gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) occurs when passing through the birth canal or by  other contact way.  Most often newborns are exposed to conjunctivitis.

Also, causative agents of chlamydia and gonorrhea can cause cervicitis, miscarriages, premature rupture of membranes, postpartum metroendometritis.