Venereology / STD
Venereology is a branch of Medicine that is concerned with the treatment of diseases which are spread from person-to-person direct contact or physical intimacy. Genital areas are generally moist and warm environments, ideal for the growth of yeasts, viruses, fungus and bacteria. These Infectious organisms can easy transmit .Such diseases are commonly known as venereal diseases (VD)
The venereal diseases (VD) include bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections such as :
- Genital herpes
- Human Papilloma Virus infection (HPV)
- Pubic lice and scabies (ectoparasitic infections)
- Immunodeficiency – HIV
- Lymphogranuloma venereum
- Granuloma inguinale
- Herpes simplex
Gonorrhea is a bacterial infection caused by the organism Neisseria gonorrhea also known as gonococcus bacteriae that are transmitted. Gonorrhea is one of the oldest known VD diseases. It is estimated that over one million people are currently infected with Gonorrhea. Among women who are infected, a significant percentage also will be infected with chlamydia, another type of bacteria that causes another (VD).
The bacteria that causes Gonorrhea requires very specific conditions for growth and reproduction. It cannot live outside the body for longer than a few minutes, nor can it live on the skin of the hands, arms, or legs. It survives only on moist surfaces within the body and is found most commonly in the vagina, and, more commonly, the cervix.
Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) is a bacteria that causes an infection that is very similar to Gonorrhea in the way that it is spread and the symptoms it produces. The Chlamydia bacteria is found in the cervix and urethra and can live in the throat or rectum. Both infected men and infected women frequently lack symptoms of chlamydia infection.
Syphilis is caused by a bacterial organism called a spirochete. The scientific name for the organism is Treponema pallidum. The spirochete is a wormlike, spiral-shaped organism that wiggles vigorously when viewed under a microscope. It infects the person by burrowing into the moist, mucous-covered lining of the mouth or genitals. The spirochete produces a classic, painless ulcer known as a chancre.
4. Genital herpes
Genital herpes, also commonly called “herpes,” is a viral infection by the herpes simplex virus (HSV) that is transmitted through intimate contact with the mucous-covered linings of the mouth or the vagina or the genital skin. The virus enters the linings or skin through microscopic tears. Once inside, the virus travels to the nerve roots near the spinal cord and settles there permanently.The outbreak of herpes is closely related to the functioning of the immune system. Women who have suppressed immune systems, because of stress, infection, or medications, have more frequent and longer-lasting outbreaks.
5. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and genital warts
HPV infection is common and does not usually lead to the development of warts, cancers, or specific symptoms. In fact, the majority of people infected with HPV have no symptoms or lesions at all. The ultimate test to detect HPV involves identification of the genetic material (DNA) of the virus.
Genital warts also known as condylomata acuminata or venereal warts, can infect the genital tract of men and women. These warts are primarily transmitted during contact. Other, different HPV types generally cause common warts elsewhere on the body. HPV infection has long been known to be a cause of cervical cancer and other Anogenital cancers in women, and it has also been linked with both anal and penile cancer in men.
Chancroid is an infection caused by the bacterium Hemophilus ducreyi, which is passed from one partner to another. The cells that form the bump then begin to die, and the bump becomes an ulcer that is usually painful. Often, there is an associated tenderness and swelling of the glands in the groin that normally tissue fluid from the genital area.The painful ulcer and tender lymph nodes occur together in only about one-third of infections.
7. Pubic lice and scabies (Ectoparasitic Infections)
Ectoparasitic infections are infections that are caused by tiny parasitic bugs, such as lice or mites.Pediculosis pubis is an infection of the genital area caused by the crab louse or Phthirus pubis. The lice commonly called crabs are small bugs that are visible to the naked eye without the aid of a magnifying glass or microscope. The lice live on pubic hair and are associated with itching.
Scabies is an Ectoparasitic infection caused by a mite known as Sarcoptes scabiei that is not visible with the naked eye but can be seen with a magnifying glass or microscope. The parasites live on the skin and cause itching over the hands, arms, trunk, legs, and buttocks. The itching usually starts several weeks after exposure to a person with scabies and is often associated with small bumps over the area of itching. The itching from scabies is usually worse at night.
8.HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY – HIV and AIDS
Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus weakens the body’s immune system and increases the body’s vulnerability to many different infections
Trichomoniasis is a common transmitted infection caused by a parasite. In women, trichomoniasis can cause a foul-smelling vaginal discharge, genital itching and painful urination.
Men who have trichomoniasis typically have no symptoms. Pregnant women who have trichomoniasis might be at higher risk of delivering their babies prematurely.