Human hair falls out throughout life and grows up again. In accordance with the normal cycle of hair growth, a person loses them every day from 50 to 150, and these losses are constantly replenished. Hair restoration is a dynamic process.
However, with pathological hair loss, self-healing does not occur. Pathological hair loss – baldness or alopecia – is one of the most serious problems in aesthetic medicine.
How to understand that the hair falls out?
When you observe hair loss more than normal during combing every day, more than 150 hairs, and during washing the head, hair is stretched out like a curl, and hair that has fallen out is characterized by the presence of a bulb, this is a characteristic sign of excessive hair loss. If hair follicles are not observed, then the hair does not fall out, but break off.
The causes of pathological alopecia are divided into two main groups: internal and external.
For internal reasons include: hormonal disorders, autoimmune processes, genetic predisposition to baldness.
External causes are: stress, infectious processes, traumatic damage to the skin of the head, the action of toxic substances.
Types of alopecia:
There are several forms of alopecia – androgenic, diffuse, focal, and scarring.
The causes of androgenic alopecia:
- Hereditary predisposition (more often on the maternal line, less often on the paternal)
- The effect of the male sex hormone dihydrotestosterone on hair follicles.
Hair loss diffusion alopecia is characterized by intense and even hair loss throughout the surface of the scalp in men and women.
Causes of diffuse alopecia:
- Nervous stress.
- Acute infectious and severe chronic diseases, surgical operations.
- Diets with a lack of proteins.
- Deficiency of some microelements in the body, such as iron, zinc, selenium.
- Hypo- and hypervitaminosis, in particular, a violation of the balance of vitamin A.
- Frequent and prolonged use of antibiotics, antidepressants, antipsychotics, antitumor drugs.
- Pregnancy, in which the hormonal and vitamin balance is greatly altered in the female body.
- Long-term use of hormonal contraceptives, especially the previous generation, in.which the content of hormones is overestimated;
- Failures in the thyroid gland.
- Radioactive radiation, chemotherapy, poisoning with strong poisons.
Focal alopecia characterized by hair loss in the form of rounded foci of different sizes with a complete lack of hair. Can be located on the scalp, in the area of the beard, eyebrows, eyelashes or torso. If, after the appearance of the foci, the process continues, then, as they increase, they can merge with each other, forming zones of damage of irregular shape. Characteristic is the sudden appearance, progression and, in some cases, spontaneous cessation of the disease with hair restoration. In some people, it never appears again, in others, hair loss and restoration can occur indefinitely. Sometimes focal alopecia can lead to complete baldness of the head – this is called total alopecia.
Causes of focal alopecia:
- Physical injuries;
- Acute diseases;
- Genetic predisposition;
- Breaking the immune system.
Scar alopecia is characterized by irreversible damage to the hair follicles and the appearance of scar tissue in their place.
Causes of scar alopecia:
- Infections (viral, bacterial, fungal)
- Physical injuries: injuries, thermal or chemical burns.
In “Skin Clinic”, a dermatologist conducts prophylaxis and treatment of all kinds of alopecia.
According to the results of the diagnosis, each patient is selected an individual treatment regimen, which prescribes elimination of common problems, as well as local changes in the skin, hair follicles, sebaceous glands:
- Treatment of the underlying disease that caused hair loss with the involvement of narrow specialists, that is, the elimination of common problems;
- Replenishment of the lack of trace elements, which are necessary for normal functioning, both for the whole organism and for eliminating hair loss;
- Use of modern methods of elimination of local skin problems, hair follicles, sebaceous glands (mesotherapy of the scalp, plasmolifting, ozone therapy, etc.).