Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands, resulting from their blockage and increased production of sebum. Acne is a skin disease that causes acne and comedones (white and black acne), inflamed red lesions (papules, pustules, cysts). It is necessary to understand that acne is not just a cosmetic problem, but a disease that requires treatment by a specialist. Often, skin problems are a consequence of an internal imbalance of the organism.
The prevalence of the disease among the male and female population is approximately equal. But, for men, the disease is more often lasting and more severe. By the age of 20, the development of spontaneous regression of the disease can be noted, turning into a chronic, recurrent process with changes on the skin-rash, pigment spots, and keloid scars.
Reasons for the formation of acne:
- pathology of the halocline glands.
- skin diseases associated with hyperkeratosis of the follicles.
- skin diseases of inflammatory genesis.
- multiple microbial colonization on the skin.
The provoking factor of the disease development is:
- Strengthening of pathological androgen, associated with genetic genesis.
- The effect of testosterone derivatives on cellular secretion, leading to hypersecretion and the formation of hyperkeratosis.
- Stimulating the growth of microorganisms as a result of increased secretion of lipids.
- Taking hormonal drugs.
- Treatment of acne, changing the hormonal background in different periods (the period of birth, puberty, the period of breastfeeding).
- Inflammatory diseases of the reproductive system.
- Androblastoma and adrenal tumor generation of androgen secretion.
- Polycystic ovary.
- Injuries and stress.
The clinic of the disease and the reaction to the medical process each person manifests in different ways. Hypertrophy and hyperactivity of the sebaceous ducts lead to hyperproduction of fatty lipids, causing the gluing of excess lipid fats, dead flakes of the upper layer of the stratum corneum of the epidermis. This makes it difficult to remove them from the skin in time, causing the accumulation of fat, microbes and dirt in the mouth of the hair follicle. Forms the bark of dark color, clogging the channel – the formation of an open form of comedones. With a liquid consistency of fat, the expansion of the channels is negligible, and the comedones are small in size. A thick consistency is the cause of the appearance of large comedones.
Diagnosis of acne in its various manifestations is based on the clinical course of the disease. Special difficulties do not cause. To confirm the diagnosis, the indications of pathohistological examination and differential diagnosis are used, with the exception of: abscess of rosacea, oily seborrhea, pustule stage of pustule syphilidae, demodecosis, folliculitis and sarcoidosis.
The complex approach is applied in treatment:
- Antimicrobial medication.
- Means that contribute to the regulation of the sebaceous secretion – retinoid and antiandrogenic medications.
- Immunocorrective and antimicrobial agents.
- Wiping with solutions that have a disinfectant and degreasing action, which includes antibiotics.
- Individually selected vitamin complex.
- Laser treatment.
- Ozone therapy and much more.
Prevention of acne is in timely treatment and in daily skin hygiene.
It should be noted that medication, preparations for internal use and preparations for external action should be selected individually only by a dermatologist.